Why waking up early could help you lose weight


Eating healthily and losing weight can be difficult tasks for anyone, but a new study shows that when you choose to go to bed and wake up can make a big difference.

Researchers from The Obesity Society (TOS) have found that consumers who wake up early and go to bed at a decent hour are more likely to have a balanced diet than those who stay up later. It is the first study of its kind to investigate what and when people with different internal clocks eat.

TOS spokesperson Dr. Courtney Peterson explains that early birds have an advantage over night owls when it comes to fighting obesity because they instinctively choose to eat healthier foods earlier in the day. She states that factors such as metabolism and our biological clocks play a big part in weight loss.

“Previous studies have shown that eating earlier in the day may help with weight loss and lower the risk of developing diabetes and heart disease. What this new study shows is that our biological clocks not only affect our metabolism but also what we choose to eat,” she said.

Early birds vs. night owls

The study analyzed data from 2,000 randomly chosen participants and looked at how their circadian and biological clock rhythm affected what they chose to eat and at what time they were most likely to eat.

The findings suggested that early birds are more likely than night owls to eat high-energy, healthy foods throughout the day. On the other hand, night owls were found to consume less protein and more sucrose and saturated fatty acids. These differences were even more pronounced on weekends, with night owls eating more often and at more irregular times. The researchers found that night owls also tended to be less physically active and have lower quality sleep.

“Linking what and when people eat to their biological clock type provides a fresh perspective on why certain people are more likely to make unhealthy food decisions,” said lead researcher Mirkka Maukonen. “This study shows that evening type people have less favorable eating habits, which may put them at a higher risk for obesity, diabetes and heart disease.”

Weight loss implications

While the health implications are striking, the researchers believe that the findings could be particularly important to consumers who are seeking to lose weight. They say that health care providers could help consumers by directing them towards healthier options and specific meal times.

“Clinicians can help steer people to healthier options — and suggest the optimal time to eat these foods — based on what we now know about our biological clocks,” said Peterson.

The full study has been published in the journal Obesity.

SoulCycle class left woman hanging from bike frame, lawsuit claims

A woman who participated in a SoulCycle class in Beverly Hills last year claims that she was impaled by the equipment. Court papers obtained by the New York Post describe the horrific leg injury that 42-year-old Donna Wood claims was the fault of a SoulCycle stationary bicycle. According to the report, Wood somehow caught her right leg on a support beam when she was attempting to dismount the bike.

“She was left dangling by her right leg, which she could not dislodge,” the suit reportedly says. “Though she screamed for assistance, because the class was in cool down mode and music was still playing loudly and the room still dark, she was not heard or seen for several minutes.”

It was a classmate who eventually freed Wood, her suit says. Wood then took an Uber to Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and received 50 surgical staples. She developed an infection while recovering at the Hotel Palomar in Westwood and now lives with “a deep and permanent scar.” A SoulCycle spokesperson has not yet returned an interview request from ConsumerAffairs.

Intense indoor cycling at a steep price

SoulCycle is a New York-based chain whose cycling classes have gained a cult-like following among the thin and the rich. At about $30 per session, a single, 45-minute SoulCycle class costs more than some gym memberships would cost for an entire month. Yet the classes are so popular in some areas that fanatics even report getting “wait-listed” when space runs out. Once finally inside the coveted cycling class, instructors lead students on a high-intensity, dimly-lit, and loud workout. A Vanity Fair reporter who attended a SoulCycle class in the Hamptons describes the exercise in detail:

“SoulCycle rooms are hot and sweaty. The music is deafening, and it’s almost pitch-black. Spinning may sound easy—it’s only riding a bike, after all—but you rarely get to sit in the seat, or ‘saddle,’ as they call it; your body hovers over the bike like a jockey on a horse. After 45 minutes of this, things start to get weird. It’s like a Native American sweat lodge: everyone is in a stunned, near-hallucinatory state…”

Whether it’s that they are in such a “stunned, near-hallucinatory state,” or they just aren’t used to cycling, a few participants have made complaints similar to Donna Wood’s about SoulCycle classes.

Riding fixed

Participants in SoulCycle classes are instructed to wear shoes that “clip-in” or attach to the pedals, with cycling shoes available on loan for riders who don’t have their own. The stationary bike itself, called a spin cycle, is fixed gear, meaning that the pedals move with the wheel and there is no freewheel to allow for coasting. A fixed stationary bike is more physically and technically challenging to ride than a traditional stationary bicycle, according to testimony that several SoulCycle instructors gave in a 2012 trial.

“Unlike a regular stationary bike, each pedal will result in one revolution of the wheel,” says court papers, describing the testimony of SoulCycle instructors during a 2012 trial. “A rider cannot keep both feet still and let the wheel spin. Just pushing with your feet to attempt to stop the wheel is futile ‘unless you have very strong legs.’” The only way to stop the bike is to make resistance higher or apply the brake.

A waiver that new customers are asked to sign describes what could go wrong if a student doesn’t come to a stop properly. “The SOULCYCLE bike has a weighted flywheel and a fixed gear,” the waiver explains. “This means that in order to stop, you must gradually slow your pedal strokes rather than stopping abruptly. Do not dismount the bike or remove your feet from the pedals until both the pedals and the flywheel have stopped completely. Failure to comply may lead to loss of control and serious injury.”

Previous lawsuits filed by new students

That theoretical accident caused by a “loss of control” is similar to actual SoulCycle accidents described in news reports and court papers. In 2009, Wolf Scheck was taking his first SoulCycle class in Manhattan and struggled to keep the same fast pace as the rest of the class. When the instructor then told the group to stand up, Scheck says in the lawsuit, “the machine grabbed my [right] leg and pulled it around…’’ The pedals kept revolving, “almost on their own,” with his feet still clipped in, his suit says.

After seeing him struggle and hearing a popping sound, people in the class helped remove him from the bike and get him into an ambulance. At the hospital, doctors discovered that he had torn the quadricep muscle in his right leg, the suit says.

In another lawsuit, filed last year, customer Carmen Farias alleges that she was not properly taught how to use the bike before class. During the session, Farias wanted to slow down but felt “bullied” by her teacher to keep going, she said in court papers. She then describes falling off the bicycle: “Fatigue and disorientation overcame Carmen and she fell to her right and off of the saddle of the spinning cycle.”

But Farias’ feet remained clipped into the pedals as she lay on the ground: “Although her head and torso were now lying to the right side of the spinning cycle, Carmen’s left and right foot remained locked to the pedals,” the complaint says. With the pedals continuing to turn with her feet attached, her ankle was dislocated multiple times, causing Farias to become what the court papers described as “catastrophically injured.”

Donna Wood, meanwhile, is accusing SoulCycle of “negligence by using unsafe stationary bikes.” She is seeking unspecified damages.

Why the alternate-day fasting diet might not be right for you

If you’re a consumer who struggles with obesity or being overweight, then one of the first suggestions you’re likely to hear is that you should restrict the number of calories you consume each day. However, this can be a major test of willpower for some, and different fad diets have tried to come up with ways that allow consumers to lose weight while letting them eat what they want.

One of the newest strategies is called alternate-day fasting, where consumers are encouraged to eat whatever they want on one day and follow it up with a day of fasting where they only consume up to 25% of their usual calorie intake. This approach has increased in popularity and has even made its way into several diet books, with proponents calling it a superior way to lose weight. But does it work?

Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago set out to answer that question and found that the diet might not be all it’s cracked up to be. After conducting a one-year randomized clinical trial, they found that participants who followed an alternate-day fasting diet did not experience any additional weight loss when compared to those who dieted normally.

“The results of this randomized clinical trial demonstrated that alternate-day fasting did not produce superior adherence, weight loss, weight maintenance or improvements in risk indicators for cardiovascular disease compared with daily calorie restriction,” the researchers said.

Trouble sticking to the diet

The study included 100 obese participants between the ages of 18 and 64 that were assigned to one of three groups for one year. One group followed an alternate-day fasting diet where participants consumed only 25% of their calorie needs on “fast” days and 125% of calorie needs on “feast” days; one group restricted their calorie intake to 75% of their caloric needs every day; and one group was given no intervention.

At the beginning of the experiment, the researchers expected that those following an alternate-day fasting diet would be able to adhere to their diet more easily, achieve greater weight loss, and reduce their risk for cardiovascular disease. However, the end results showed that these participants had the most trouble following their diet plan.

“Participants in the alternate-day fasting group ate more than prescribed on fast days, and less than prescribed on feast days, while those in the daily calorie restriction group generally met their prescribed energy goals,” the researchers said.

Not “superior”

In addition to not losing any more weight than participants in the calorie restriction group, the researchers found that those in the alternate-day fasting group were more likely to drop out of the study.

“Alternate-day fasting has been promoted as a potentially superior alternative to daily calorie restriction under the assumption that it is easier to restrict calories every other day. However, our data from food records. . . indicate that this assumption is not the case. Rather, it appears as though many participants in the alternate-day fasting group converted their diet into de facto calorie restriction as the trial progressed,” the researchers said.

“Moreover, the dropout rate in the alternate-day fasting group (38%) was higher than that in the daily calorie restriction group (29%) and the control group (26%). It was also shown that more participants in the alternate-day fasting group withdrew owing to dissatisfaction with diet compared with those in the daily calorie restriction group. Taken together, these findings suggest that alternate-day fasting may be less sustainable in the long term, compared with daily calorie restriction, for most obese individuals.”

The researchers point out that some individuals may still prefer alternate-day fasting over more conventional dieting techniques, but their study does put into question whether or not this new technique truly is “superior.”

The full study has been published in JAMA Internal Medicine.

There’s more to losing weight than just reducing your calorie intake

So, you’ve finally decided to bear down on your goal of losing weight and have cut down on calories. You should start losing weight any time now, right? Maybe not…

A new study from UT Southwestern Medical Center reveals that even the strictest dieters can fail to lose weight if they’re eating meals or snacking at the wrong time. Using mice subjects, Dr. Joseph S. Takahashi and his colleagues found that there’s more to losing weight than just cutting down on calories.

“Translated into human behavior, these studies suggest that dieting will only be effective if calories are consumed during the daytime when we are awake and active,” Takahashi said. “They further suggest that eating at the wrong time at night will not lead to weight loss even when dieting.”

Eating at the right time

To reach their conclusions, the researchers used high-tech sensors and automated feeding equipment to test the benefits of calorie-restricted diets. Mice were split up into five groups and given different dietary protocols to see which plan helped them lose weight.

Out of the five groups, only the mice who had a reduced calorie plan and ate during their normal feeding/active cycles were able to lose weight. The researchers say that the feeding schedule these mice followed tended to consolidate food intake into shorter periods and led to an unexpected increase in wheel-running activity, which they attribute to a previously unrecognized relationship between feeding, metabolism, and behavior.

The other four groups, who were either not given a reduced calorie plan or were fed during non-active or resting periods did not lose weight, suggesting that eating late at night even when on a diet will not lead to positive results.

The researchers say that the new tools they were able to use during the study have already led to a number of fresh insights, and that further study on dietary habits could lead to even greater understanding.

The full study has been published in Cell Metabolism.

When dining out, pay attention to calories


Nutritionists will tell you that there is more to weight control than counting calories. But it can’t be denied that piling up the calories will usually lead to packing on some extra pounds.

When you prepare meals at home you can take steps to minimize extra calories and increase awareness of the ingredients that go into your food. When you dine out at restaurants, it’s not as easy.

That requires some discretion when you order from the menu, avoiding dishes that, just from the descriptions, you know are packed with extra calories. In its latest release of the Xtreme Eating Awards, the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) highlights a few dishes in particular that may be very tasty, but are high in calories.

The group singles out chain restaurants for top honors, saying some dishes have twice the calories a person should consume in a single day. You’ll find the full list of this year’s “honorees” here.

Pancakes as a side dish

“Leave it to America’s chain restaurant industry to market a stack of pancakes as a side dish, or to lard up quesadillas and pasta with pizza toppings, or to ruin a perfectly good sweet potato,” said CSPI senior nutritionist Lindsay Moyer. “These meals are extreme, but even the typical dishes served at restaurants are a threat to Americans’ health because they increase the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and more.”

But the experts at Fitness Magazine say it is possible to dine out without going overboard on calories. It starts with arriving at the restaurant without a huge appetite. If you’re famished, chances are you’ll fill up on bread before the food arrives.

Go easy on the wine. There’s about 100 calories in each glass. That goes for cocktails too.

Look closely at dishes labeled “light.” They may qualify because they are low in carbs, but may still have lots of calories.

Portion control

Portion control is a big factor. Restaurants like to serve huge portions of food because they believe that’s what their customers want. But no one needs to eat that much food. Just eat some of it and take the rest home. It might feed you for several days.

Several months from now it will be easier to keep tabs on calories when dining out, as the Food and Drug Administration’s final menu labeling rule takes effect in May 2018. That rule will require restaurants with 20 or more locations to post calorie information on menus and menu boards. Many fast food restaurants have already taken that step.

The rule has been expanded to include supermarkets, but last week the House Energy & Commerce Committee approved a bipartisan bill to give grocery stores added flexibility.

The Food Marketing Institute pushed for the bill, saying the FDA rule did not take into account the variety of foods and formats found in grocery stores.

Why sugary drinks and protein-rich meals don’t mix

Eating meals that are high in protein is a great way to provide your body with the means to build and repair muscle, bones, and other important building blocks. However, a new study shows that pairing a sugary drink with a high-protein meal could be harmful.

Researchers from the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Grand Forks Human Nutrition Center have found that consuming sugar-sweetened drinks with high-protein foods negatively affects the body’s energy balance and can lead to it to store more fat.

“We found that about a third of the additional calories provided by the sugar-sweetened drinks were not expended, fat metabolism was reduced, and it took less energy to metabolize the meals. This decreased metabolic efficiency may ‘prime’ the body to store more fat,” said lead author Dr. Shanon Casperson.

Reducing fat-burn

The study analyzed 27 healthy-weight adults over two 24-hour periods who were given protein-laden meals and sugar-sweetened beverages. Participants were given 15% protein meals on their first visit after an overnight fast and 30% protein meals under similar conditions on their second visit. On each visit, one sugar-sweetened beverage was consumed during one meal and one non-sugar-sweetened beverage was consumed during the other.

The researchers found that the sugar-sweetened drinks decreased the fat oxidation process after a meal by 8%, which means that it took longer for the body to start breaking down fat molecules. For the 15% protein meal, that translated to 7.2 grams of potential fat that wasn’t burned. For the 30% protein meal, that figure increased to 12.6 grams.

Additionally, Casperson says that the sugar-sweetened beverages changed participants’ food preferences, causing them to not feel satisfied with their meal and to crave different types of flavors and foods for long periods after eating.

“We were surprised by the impact that the sugar-sweetened drinks had on metabolism when they were paired with higher-protein meals. This combination also increased study subjects’ desire to eat savory and salty foods for four hours after eating,” she said.

Weight gain and obesity

The results of the study show that consumers who are looking to lose weight should avoid sugar-sweetened drinks, especially if they are consuming more protein to recover after working out.

“Our findings suggest that having a sugar-sweetened drink with a meal impacts both sides of the energy balance equation. On the intake side, the additional energy from the drink did not make people feel more sated. On the expenditure side, the additional calories were not expended and fat oxidation was reduced,” said Casperson. “The results provide further insight into the potential role of sugar-sweetened drinks — the largest single source of sugar in the American diet — in weight gain and obesity.”

The full study has been published in BMC Nutrition.

Why your morning coffee could leave you craving for sugar

Just about any doctor will tell you that cutting down on sugar is a great first step to losing weight. But a recent study shows that this can be a lot harder for some consumers who enjoy their morning coffee.

Researchers from Cornell University have found that coffee can temporarily alter a person’s taste buds to make foods and drinks taste less sweet. While this isn’t necessarily a debilitating side effect on its own, senior author Robin Dando says that it may also make consumers crave sugar more, which could lead to overeating or consuming unhealthy snacks.

“When you drink caffeinated coffee, it will change how you perceive taste — for however long that effect lasts. So if you eat food directly after drinking a caffeinated coffee or other caffeinated drinks, you will likely perceive food differently,” Dando said.

Sugar cravings and alertness

To test this effect, the researchers conducted a blind study where participants were either given the equivalent of a strong cup of coffee or decaffeinated coffee, both of which contained sugar. Overall, panelists who were given the caffeinated beverage were more likely to say that their drink was less sweet.

In a second part of the study, participants were once again split into two groups and received either a caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee. After drinking their beverage, the panelists were asked to estimate how much caffeine was in their drink and report on how alert they felt.

The researchers found that all participants reported the same increase in alertness after drinking their beverage, regardless of whether it was caffeinated. The team believes that the trial may have discovered a sort of placebo or conditioning effect tied to the act of drinking coffee.

“Think Pavlov’s dog. The act of drinking coffee – with the aroma and taste – is usually followed by alertness. So the panelists felt alert even if the caffeine was not there,” Dando said. “What seems to be important is the action of drinking that coffee. Just the action of thinking that you’ve done the things that make you feel more awake, makes you feel more awake.”

Whether that finding will have consumers reaching for decaf is more doubtful, but it could be a viable option for consumers who want to avoid sugar cravings.

The full study has been published in the Journal of Food Science.

Three things to focus on to lose weight and get in shape

Halloween is nearly at the doorstep, and consumers across the country are stocking up on candy for eager trick-or-treaters. Unfortunately, leftover treats may cause some people to put on a few pounds before November arrives.

As with any other time of the year, there are plenty of ways consumers can burn off those extra calories and get in shape. Three methods that should jump to the top of the list include exercise, dieting, and proper meal preparation.

Exercising on a tight schedule

One of the favorite mantras of any gym nut or personal trainer is that if exercise was easy, everyone would be doing it. Unfortunately, dragging yourself outside to take a run, walk around the block, or drive to the gym takes a certain amount of willpower that many consumers find elusive.

If you — like many others — run on a tight work or home schedule, you might start your fitness journey by finding little ways to burn calories at home or at work.

For example, try walking or taking your bike to work (if possible) instead of driving; opt to take the stairs over the elevator; and try to incorporate walking meetings into your workday wherever possible.

In some cases, buying fitness equipment that you can keep at home can also be a huge benefit. Taking a half hour in the morning or at night to use a treadmill or elliptical can do wonders for your health and can compensate for a sedentary job or lifestyle.

Meal preparation and dieting

Like exercising, preparing healthy meals takes time; however, replacing unhealthy meals is a must if you want to keep your weight under control. Luckily, there are various options for streamlining better nutrition, whatever your schedule may be.

Instead of cooking up big meals that require many ingredients and a lot of time and attention, consumers should make some meals that are quick and easy to put together. For example, whipping up some healthy parfaits made with fresh fruit, yogurt, and granola can be the perfect way to start your day instead of a labor-intensive breakfast.

Consumers should also consider frozen foods that pack a nutritional punch, such as organic fruits and vegetables. Lean meats like chicken and turkey are also good options and can be kept frozen until there’s time to cook them up later.

Of course, if finding time to go to the grocery store or cook meals is a difficult task, you might consider having meals delivered to you. Meal delivery services like HelloFresh and Personal Trainer Food – as well as weight loss programs like Nutrisystem and Beachbody — can provide pre-portioned ingredients and meals that make meal preparation and dieting a snap.

Strategies for avoiding holiday weight gain

Amid an endless string of holiday parties and food-filled celebrations, it can be all too easy to veer off course with regard to diet and nutrition. But in order to avoid the post-holiday bulge, it’s important to make sure you don’t overindulge.

The average person puts on about a pound from November to January. While it might not seem like a lot, that extra pound can linger — sometimes well into the next year.

Research shows some of the weight people tend to gain over the holidays isn’t lost until five months later –and some people don’t shed their winter weight the following year. In the case of the latter, holiday weight gain can continue to accumulate year after year.

To avoid starting the New Year off with weight to lose, nutrition experts recommend making a plan to help yourself avoid extra sweet treats and rich meals around the holidays. Here are a few tips to help you do just that.

Eat before the party

Eat healthy in the hours leading up to the holiday party you plan to attend. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics recommends focusing on lean protein, whole grains, and simply prepared fruits and vegetables.

And make sure you eat enough. Consuming too few calories in hopes that it will give you leeway to indulge later is a bad idea, experts say. Similar to grocery shopping on an empty stomach, showing up to a party hungry can result in going overboard on food.

Count your drinks

It’s no secret that alcoholic beverages are full of calories. If you’re trying to maintain your ideal weight, go easy on alcohol — especially if you have more than one social gathering to attend per week.

“If you choose to consume alcohol this holiday season, opting for a light beer or a glass of dry wine, which comes in at about 100 to 150 calories, is a far better option and contains less sugar than homemade cider or a seasonal beer, which can often have as many as 200 calories per drink,” Courtney McCormick, Corporate Dietitian at Nutrisystem, told ConsumerAffairs.

Keep a tally in your head of how many drinks you have had, or use a calorie-counting app. To pace yourself and stay hydrated, have a glass of water between drinks.

Choose healthy options

If you’re not confident there will be a healthy holiday dish available at the party, bring your own. Cauliflower Mashed Potatoes can be a nice swap for a traditional Mashed Potato dish, McCormick said.

Be sure to load up on healthy food options (like fruits and vegetables that may be set out as appetizers) first, even if that doesn’t leave much room for the main course. Avoid reaching for too many calorie-dense appetizers, like mixed nuts or mini hot dogs.

While eating healthy is the goal, you don’t have to forgo holiday treats altogether. Lindsey Joe, a registered dietitian and nutritionist has one key rule for holiday parties: “eat what you love, leave what you like.” Avoid nibbling on food that doesn’t give you true enjoyment.

Be social

Another way to keep yourself from overeating? Socialize–and do so away from the buffet or appetizer trays to minimize unconscious snacking.

Spending the party socializing can help you avoid the temptation to eat too many diet-sabotaging foods. If you’re still hungry after the party, you can always get a healthy snack or meal at home.

Cut calories this holiday season by making healthy food swaps

Several studies have suggested that there’s a link between the holiday season and overeating that leads to weight gain. A recent analysis of data found that the last week of November to the first or second week of January is a critical time when many consumers gain weight.

Researchers say that most adults are bound to pack on a few pounds around the holiday, even if they’re seeking to lose weight and are self-monitoring their eating habits. However, some health experts don’t necessarily agree.

In an interview with ConsumerAffairs, nutritionist Allison Bradfield said that it’s important to be careful about which holiday foods you allow yourself to enjoy, since certain staples can lead to unintended weight gain.

She points out that some classic holiday foods can be diet downfalls, but others can be healthy when enjoyed in moderation.

Healthier holiday foods

Bradfield says some of the least healthy holiday foods include creamy dips, casseroles, and pecan pie. But other traditional holiday foods — such as sweet potatoes, cranberries, pumpkin, and fresh green beans — can offer health benefits, especially when prepared via simple cooking methods such as roasting, baking, or steaming.

Here are a few healthy foods to seek out at your next holiday gathering:

  • Sweet potatoes. Sweet potatoes are loaded with vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants and have just 113 calories per half-cup. Since they’re naturally sweet when baked, you won’t need to add sugar, butter, or marshmallows. Instead, add a sprinkle of cinnamon and nutmeg.

  • Pumpkin. Pumpkin pie is a better choice than pecan pie (which can have up to 800 calories per slice), says Bradfield. Pumpkin is lower in fat and calories and also provides a good dose of beta-carotene. Another way to cut calories? Avoid the crust.

  • White turkey meat. Lower-fat white turkey meat is healthier than dark meat smothered in gravy. Bradfield says the healthiest way to enjoy white turkey meat is without the skin and with just a drizzle of gravy made with defatted pan juices, dry white wine, and low-sodium chicken broth.

  • Hot cocoa. Instead of egg nog (which can have up to 500 calories a cup), Bradfield recommends warming up with a cup of low-fat dark chocolate hot cocoa.

  • Lower-calorie spirits. Wine spritzers and light beer have fewer calories than mixed, sweetened alcoholic beverages. Since alcohol is a high calorie drink, Bradfield recommends setting a limit on the number of alcoholic beverages you allow yourself to have. Drinking water between beverages can also help prevent overindulgence.

Everything in moderation

To avoid consuming excess calories this holiday season, take a mindful approach when eating. Listening to your body can help you avoid overindulgence.

“I’m all for enjoying fabulous food around the holidays; with that being said, I also want to be mindful and balance my diet with healthy foods,” Bradfield said. “I recommend savoring favorite foods in moderation and forgoing anything that is not amazing.”

“It is important to be mindful while choosing foods to eat. Pay attention to your body (hunger and feelings of fullness), slow down, and stay in the moment. Avoid skipping meals, since that strategy can backfire and cause overindulgence later.”